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Usage: As an intermediate
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Package:1kg/aluminium foil bag,25kg/box/barrel
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Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor.It is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle and other non-human mammals. Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats.
In veterinary anesthesia, It is sold under many brand names worldwide, most notably the Bayer brand name Rompun.It is also marketed as Anased, Sedazine, and Chanazine.The drug interactions vary with different animals.
It has become a drug of abuse, particularly in United States, where it is diverted from stocks used by equine veterinarians and used as a cutting agent for heroin.
Xylazine is often used as a sedative, muscle relaxant, and analgesic.It is frequently used in the treatment of tetanus.Xylazine is very similar to drugs such as phenothiazine, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonidine.As an anesthetic, it is typically used in conjunction . Xylazine appears to reduce sensitivity to insulin and glucose uptake in humans. Yohimbine, an α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, has been used to decrease glucose levels to a healthy level. In clinical settings, yohimbine can reverse the adverse effects of xylazine if administered intravenously shortly after xylazine administration.
Xylazine overdose is usually fatal in humans.Because it is used as a drug adulterant, the symptoms caused by the drugs accompanying xylazine administration vary between individuals.
The most common side effects in humans associated with xylazine administration include bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypotension, transient hypertension secondary to vagus nerve stimulation, and other changes in cardiac output.Xylazine significantly decreases heart rate in animals that are not premedicated with medications that have anticholinergic effects.The decrease in heart rate directly impacts aortic flow.Bradycardia caused by xylazine administration is effectively prevented by administration of atropine or glycopyrrolate.Arrhythmias associated with xylazine includes other symptoms such as sinoatrial block, atrioventricular block, A-V dissociation, and sinus arrhythmia.
Xylazine administration can lead to diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia. Other possible side effects that can occur are areflexia, asthenia, ataxia, blurred vision, disorientation, dizziness, drowsiness, dysarthria, dysmetria, fainting, hyporeflexia, slurred speech, somnolence, staggering, coma, apnea, shallow breathing, sleepiness, premature ventricular contraction, tachycardia, miosis, and dry mouth.Rarely, hypotonia, dry mouth, urinary incontinence and nonspecific electrocardiographic ST segment changes occur. It has been reported that the duration of symptoms after human overdose is 8 to 72 hours. Further research is necessary to categorize the side effects that occur when xylazine is used in conjunction with heroin and cocaine.
Chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration, dependence, abscesses, and skin ulceration, which can be physically debilitating and painful. Hypertension followed by hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression lower tissue oxygenation in the skin. Thus, chronic use of xylazine can progress the skin oxygenation deficit, leading to severe skin ulceration. Lower skin oxygenation is associated with impaired healing of wounds and a higher chance of infection.The ulcers may have a characteristic odor and ooze pus. In severe cases, amputations must be performed on the affected extremities.
Xylazine is a potent α2 adrenergic agonist.When xylazine and other α2 adrenergic receptor agonists are administered, they distribute throughout the body within 30 to 40 minutes. Due to xylazine's highly lipophilic nature, xylazine directly stimulates central α2 receptors as well as peripheral α-adrenoceptors in a variety of tissues. As an agonist, xylazine leads to a decrease in neurotransmission of norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system.It does so by mimicking norepinephrine in binding to presynaptic surface autoreceptors, which leads to feedback inhibition of norepinephrine.
Xylazine also serves as a transport inhibitor by suppressing norepinephrine transport function through competitive inhibition of substrate transport. Accordingly, xylazine significantly increases Km and does not affect Vmax. This likely occurs by direct interaction on an area that overlaps with the antidepressant binding site. For example, xylazine and clonidine suppress uptake of MIBG, a norepinephrine analog, in neuroblastoma cells.Xylazine has varying affinities for cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, α1 adrenergic, H2 - histaminergic and opiate receptors. Its chemical structure closely resembles the phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonidine.
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